Views: 5 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-11-18 Origin: Site
Knitted fabrics and woven fabrics have their own unique characteristics in terms of processing technology, fabric structure, fabric characteristics, and use of finished products. Here are some comparisons.
(1) The composition of the fabric structure: (A) Knitted fabric: the yarn is sequentially bent into loops, and the loops are intertwined to form a fabric, and the process of forming loops by the yarn can be carried out horizontally or vertically. It is weft-knitted fabric, and longitudinal knitting is called warp-knitted fabric. (B) Woven fabric: It is a fabric made of two or more sets of mutually perpendicular yarns interlaced with warp and weft at a 90 degree angle. The longitudinal yarns are called warp yarns, and the horizontal yarns are called weft yarns.
(2) Basic unit of fabric organization: (A) Knitted fabric: The loop is the smallest basic unit of knitted fabric, and the loop is composed of loop stem and extension line in a space curve. (B) Woven fabric: Every intersection point between warp and weft is called weave point, which is the smallest basic unit of woven fabric.
(3) Fabric organization characteristics: (A) Knitted fabric: Because the loops are formed by bending the yarn in space, and each loop is composed of one yarn, when the knitted fabric is subjected to external tension, such as longitudinal stretching, the loop The bending of the loop changes, and the height of the loop increases, while the width of the loop decreases. If the tension is horizontal stretch, the situation is the opposite. The height and width of the loop can obviously be converted to each other under different tension conditions, so knitting The extensibility of objects is large. (B) Woven fabric: Because the warp yarn and the weft yarn are intertwined, the moraine is bent in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the fabric. The degree of bending is related to the mutual tension between the warp and weft yarns and the yarn stiffness. External tension, such as stretching in the longitudinal direction, the tension of the warp yarn increases, and the bending decreases, while the bending of the weft yarn increases, such as longitudinal stretching, until the warp yarn is fully straightened, and the fabric shrinks in the transverse direction. When the woven fabric is stretched transversely by external tension, the tension of the weft yarn increases, the bending decreases, and the warp yarn bending increases, such as the transverse stretching continues until the weft yarn is fully straightened, and the fabric shrinks longitudinally. The warp and weft will not change, which is different from knitted fabrics.
(4) Features of fabric structure: (A) Knitted fabric: It can be extended in all directions and has good elasticity. Because the knitted fabric is formed by hole-shaped loops, it has greater air permeability and a soft feel. (B) Woven fabric: Because the warp and weft of the woven fabric have little relationship with the extension and contraction, and no conversion occurs, the fabric is generally tight and stiff.
(5) Physical and mechanical properties of fabric structure: (A) Knitted fabric: physical and mechanical properties of fabric, including vertical density, horizontal density, square meter weight, elongation, elasticity, breaking strength, abrasion resistance, curling, Thickness, dispersibility, shrinkage, coverage, bulk density. (B) Woven fabric: The physical and mechanical properties of woven fabric, including the yarn density of warp and weft, selvage, front and back, forward and reverse wool direction, and fabric coverage. Combustion method to identify fiber combustion method: according to the chemical composition of the fiber, the combustion characteristics are also different, so as to roughly distinguish the major types of fibers. The comparison of the combustion characteristics of several common fibers is as follows:
(1) Cotton, hemp, viscose, cupra: close to the flame: no shrinkage and no melting; contact with the flame: rapid burning; leaving the flame: continuing to burn; smell: the smell of burning paper; residue characteristics: a small amount of gray black or gray white ash.
(2) Silk and wool fibers: close to the flame: curl and melt; in contact with the flame: curl, melt, burn; leave the flame: slow burning and sometimes extinguish itself; smell: the smell of burnt hair; residue characteristics: loose and brittle black particles Or coke-like.
(3) Polyester fiber: close to the flame: melting; touching the flame: melting, smoking, slowly burning; leaving the flame: continue to burn, sometimes extinguished by itself; smell: special aromatic sweetness; residue characteristics: hard black round beads .
(4) Nylon fiber: near the flame: melting; touching the flame: melting and smoking; leaving the flame: self-extinguishing; smell: amino smell; residue characteristics: hard light brown transparent round beads.
(5) Acrylic fiber: close to the flame: melting; contacting the flame: melting and smoking; leaving the flame: continuing to burn and emitting black smoke; smell: pungent; residue characteristics: black irregular beads, fragile.
(6) Polypropylene fiber: close to the flame: melting; contacting the flame: melting and burning; leaving the flame: continuing to burn; smell: paraffin smell; residue characteristics: off-white hard transparent round beads.
(7) Spandex fiber: close to the flame: melting and shrinking; contacting the flame: melting and burning; leaving the flame: self-extinguishing; smell: peculiar smell; residue characteristics: white gel. (8) Chlorine fiber: near the flame: melting; contacting the flame: melting, burning, emitting black smoke; leaving the flame: self-extinguishing; smell: pungent smell; residue characteristics: dark brown lumps. (9) Vinylon fiber: near the flame: melting; contacting the flame: melting and burning; leaving the flame: continuing to burn and emitting black smoke; smell: unique fragrance; residue characteristics: irregular scorched brown lumps.
Identify fibers by hand and visual inspection:
This method is suitable for textile materials in the state of loose fibers.
(1) Cotton fiber is shorter and thinner than ramie fiber and other hemp fiber and wool fiber, often with various impurities and defects.
(2) The hemp fiber feels rough and hard.
(3) The wool fiber is curled and elastic.
(4) Silk is a filament, long and slender, with special luster.
(5) Among chemical fibers, only viscose fiber has a large difference in strength between dry and wet states.
(6) Spandex yarn has very large elasticity, and its length can be stretched to more than five times at room temperature. Introduction to chemical fiber Chemical fiber: chemical fiber is a general term for fibers made from natural cellulose or synthetic polymers through chemical treatment methods and mechanical processing. According to the different sources of raw materials and processing methods, it can be divided into two categories: cellulose fiber and synthetic fiber.
Chemical fiber = cellulose fiber + synthetic fiber.
Cellulose fiber (formerly known as man-made fiber): It is made from natural cellulose-containing by-products of agriculture and forestry, such as wood, cotton linters, bagasse, reed, etc., as the main raw materials, processed by chemical methods, and then processed by machinery fiber. The main varieties are viscose fiber, acetate fiber and cupra, etc. The main products currently produced are viscose fiber. Viscose fiber is divided into cotton short fiber, wool short fiber and viscose filament.
1. Cotton-type short fiber (commonly known as rayon), generally refers to the fiber with a length of 38 mm or less and a fineness of less than 2 dtex. Medium and long fibers (with a length of 51-70 mm and a fineness of 2-3 dtex) are also counted in cotton short fibers.
2. Wool short fiber (commonly known as artificial wool), refers to the length of viscose fiber is more than 70 mm, the fineness is more than 3 decitex (dtex), which is similar to wool, rich in curling, and can be spun alone or with wool or other fibers Blended.
3. viscose filament (commonly known as rayon), including ordinary viscose filament and strong viscose rayon. Ordinary viscose filament is widely used in the silk weaving and knitting industry; strong viscose rayon is an excellent material for manufacturing cord.
Synthetic fiber: Synthetic fiber is a general term for chemical fibers made by processing synthetic polymer compounds as raw materials. That is, the fiber is made by using petroleum, natural gas, coal, etc. as the main raw materials, using organic synthesis to make monomers, and then spinning after polymerization. According to the raw materials, it is divided into polyester, nylon, acrylic, vinylon, polypropylene, chlorinated fiber, polyethylene, spandex, etc. According to fiber form, it is divided into short fiber, filament, heald and others.
1. Polyester fiber: Polyester is the abbreviation of polyester fiber. It is a fiber synthesized from polyethylene terephthalate and ethylene glycol ester (polyester for short).
2. Nylon fiber: is the collective name of polyamide fiber (commonly known as "nylon", "nylon", "nylon"). There are many types of this type of fiber. The main varieties are nylon 66 and nylon 6, which are synthetic fibers made from nylon 66 salt and polyhydantoin as the main raw materials. Its abrasion resistance is extremely high and its resilience is very good. It is mostly used to make socks, underwear and other clothing items, and can also be used to produce tire cords, parachutes, insulating materials, fishing nets, carpets, etc.
3. Acrylic fiber: Acrylic fiber is short for polyacrylonitrile fiber. It is a fiber made of propylene as the main raw material (containing more than 85% acrylonitrile). The performance is close to wool, soft hand feeling, warmth, mildew resistance, no insects. It can be purely spun or blended with wool and other fibers to produce textiles or other craft products.
4. Vinylon fiber: Vinylon is short for polyvinyl alcohol fiber. It is a synthetic fiber made of polyvinyl alcohol as the main raw material. This fiber has a water absorption similar to cotton fiber, which is the highest water absorption among synthetic fibers, but has poor heat resistance. It is suitable for making clothing and household textiles, tarpaulins, hoses, ropes, etc.
5. Polypropylene fiber: Polypropylene is the abbreviation of polypropylene fiber. It is a synthetic fiber made from isotactic polypropylene. It is the fiber with the smallest specific gravity among the textile fibers and can float on water. It can be spun purely or blended with cotton, wool and other fibers to make fabrics for clothing, curtains, and furniture cloth. It can also be used for socks, industrial filter cloth, insulation materials, and non-woven fabrics. Weaving cloth etc.
6. Chlorine fiber: Chlorine fiber is short for polyvinyl chloride fiber. It is a synthetic fiber made from polyvinyl chloride as the main raw material. It has the characteristics of chemical resistance, abrasion resistance, flame resistance, light resistance, heat insulation, sound insulation, etc. It can treat rheumatoid arthritis when made into underwear, and is suitable for manufacturing industrial filter cloth, cotton wool, flame resistant clothing, fishing nets, curtains, etc.
The above-mentioned six kinds of fibers are the main varieties of synthetic fibers. In addition to these, there are synthetic fibers such as spandex, polyethylene fiber, and acrylic/chlorinated fiber common fibers and characteristics.
1. Natural fiber
1) COTTON (cotton) : Absorb sweat, soft.
2) LINEN (linen) : easy to wrinkle, straight and airy after finishing, and the price is higher.
3) SILK (silk): soft, beautiful luster, high moisture absorption.
4) RAMIE (ramie): It is a kind of hemp material, the yarn is thicker, usually used for curtain cloth or sofa, and used for clothes, usually mixed with hemp.
5) WOOL (wool): The wool is relatively thin and is not easy to pilling.
6) LAMBWOOL (small wool) : The wool is relatively thick, usually mixed with ARCYLIC (polyacrylonitrile fiber) to make the clothes not easy to deform.
7) MOHAIR (Mohai goat wool): Fluffy characteristics, more warmth.
8) CASHMERE (Kashmiri goat wool cashmere): The fiber is darker, lighter and softer, and comfortable to the touch.
9) ANGOM (Angora goat hair or rabbit hair): The wool is fine, loose, silky to the touch, elastic, and the price is higher.
2. Chemical fiber:
1) RAYON (rayon): very light, soft, mostly used in COLLECTION shirts.
2) NYLON: completely impervious to the wind. The hand feels harder, suitable for windbreaker jackets, mixed with wool materials to make the clothes firmer.
3) POLYESTER (polyester fiber): similar to rayon, easy to handle, not easy to wrinkle after ironing, and cheap.
4) SPANIDEX (stretch nylon): It has elasticity, most of it is mixed with cotton, and only needs to add 5-10% to the fabric. It has great elasticity, so that the clothes are not easy to deform and fade, and the price is higher.
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